Wind project developers were, in fact, some of the earliest adopters of energy storage, doing their best to prove out the case for renewables firming. Most of these initiatives occurred in 2008-2010 with the available battery chemistries at that time, such as sodium sulfur and advanced lead acid, and project developers were self-financing these experiments or leveraging stimulus dollars to execute them. While Li-ion was appealing, its expense often made it a showstopper, or at least a delayed opener. The utility industry was more highly focused on long duration peak shaving applications and the benchmark for cost effective energy storage was pumped hydro.
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